But the biosphere on Earth is a single system with uniform laws.

But the biosphere on Earth is a single system with uniform laws.

But the biosphere on Earth is a single system with uniform laws.

In the fifth phase of its development, ecology studies the human position in the biosphere. This phase represents a somewhat rounded evolutionary cycle, reproducing the scientific content of the human state from the beginning, ie the integration part of the biosphere, which evolved along with all other components. By his labor activity man changes nature, motivating it by the transformation of the animal societies of which he is a member, and this transformation most often occurs independently of his will. The rate of change under human influence in animal societies increases with the development of civilization.

Man not only changes nature, but does so with frightened speed. When studying the position of man in the biosphere, ecology must proceed from the fact that man always treats nature as something external, changing and using it, he remains a natural being. Only on the basis of the conditions created by nature, due to the fact that matter has its own laws, people themselves can be realized taking into account these laws.

Therefore, ecology formulates the main question as follows: do changes as a result of human activities harm non-renewable natural resources, do the negative effects of production prevail over the positive ones?

Ecology is a natural and human science. As a natural science, it cannot exclude man, and as a humanities, it cannot be separated from nature.

The history of the evolution of ecological thought is quite clearly divided into three parts:

human and urban ecology (Chicago School) in the 1920s and 1930s, the sociology of environmental problems that developed first in the United States, then in Western Europe and the USSR in the 1970s and 1989s, and environmental activities that emerged in the late 1980s years influenced by a series of reports to the Club of Rome, the ideas of the UN Commission on Environment and Development (“Our Common Future”), as well as the need for social interpretation of global changes in the biosphere under the combined influence of industrialization , urbanization and population growth (ozone depletion, greenhouse and cumulative deforestation – the main oxygen producers on Earth).

The Chicago school, using the ideas of the new (then!) Science of ecology, argued that the spatio-temporal relationships of human beings are determined by the selective, distributive and accommodative forces of the environment (R. Mackenzie). The ideas of R. Park, J. Burgess, and R. Mackenzie were later developed by the orthodox schools of A. Hawley, G. Theodorson, and others. In Russia, the ideas of the “city-organism” were developed by A. Dykansky, in the 1920s and 1930s by M. Milyutin, O. Sabsovych, and other theorists of the https://123helpme.me/narrative-essay-topics/ “socialist garden city.”

In the 1960s, as a reaction to structural and functional analysis, behaviorism and symbolic interactionism, which eliminated any material (physical) phenomena from among their constructions, the sociology of environmental problems arose. This is primarily the concept of “ecological complex” which studied the relationship between population, social organization, technology and environment (O. Duncan).

In a more perfect form, this approach was used in reports to the Club of Rome in 1972, 1992 (D. Meadows and others), in the concept of urban dynamics (J. Forrester). The ecology of certain problems developed everywhere – the city and the region, the consequences of pollution and environmental disasters, environmental awareness, the processes of greening of culture and lifestyle and, of course, environmental movements. In the USSR, special attention was paid to the problems of formation of ecological consciousness and public opinion, ecology of the city and alternative settlements, civil nature protection initiatives (O. Baranov, D. Kavtaradze, M. Lauristin, E. Orlova, M . Heidmets, O. Yanitsky).

The development of ecological thought in the 1980s and 1990s has its theoretical foundation as the “New Ecological Paradigm” (R. Danlep, W. Cato, L. Milbres, O. Yanitsky, and others), which captures the irresistible dependence of man and social systems on the state of the biosphere. … The key issue is global environmental changes of anthropogenic origin and their socio-cultural interpretation.

The New Environmental Paradigm (NEP) is the theoretical foundation of modern environmental activity. The main postulates: people with exceptional properties (culture, technology), however, remain one of the many living beings – interdependent and included in the global ecosystem, the biosphere; human activity is woven into a complex network of causal and feedback of natural tissue; society lives in a finite biophysical environment, which imposes serious restrictions on its activities; the uniqueness of man as a cultural being does not abolish the laws of the biosphere (Cato, Danlep, 1980). The opposite paradigm, which denies these limitations, is called the “Paradigm of human exclusivity.”

The emergence of the NEP stimulated the articulation of the “Dominant Social Paradigm” (DSP), the theoretical basis of which are anthropocentrism, technocracy and “historical optimism”. The topic provides a detailed comparison of NEP / DSP on such criteria as: the value of nature, extensive economic growth / quality development, the level of socially acceptable risk, the direction and nature of social change in society, the principles of human relations, political structure and understanding of environmental policy (O. Mol, G. Spargaaren, R. Dunlep, L. Milbres, O. Yablukov).

For authoritarian regimes and societies of the “transitional type” that Ukraine is today, there must be paradigms that adequately reflect their societal specificity. In this regard, the principles of constructing the paradigms of “Systemic exclusivity” (PSV) and “System adaptability” (PSA) on such parameters as “nature” of this society, its relationship with the outside world, “nature” the person himself , the ability of the system to manage its own development, the context of its activities, the constraints imposed on it by the living environment.


Markovich D. Zh. Social ecology. – M.: Ros. Peoples’ Friendship University, 1997 .– 433s. Makhortov Yu. A. Ecological and economic problems of land use. – Lugansk: Lugan, 1999 .– 414p. 468. Potravny IM, Semenchenko PM Practice of economic regulation and environmental protection / Priaz. state tech. un-t. – Donetsk, 1997 .– 39p.



The impact of human activities on the environment. Abstract

Today, humanity is experiencing an extremely important, critical period in its history – a period of unprecedented, threatening the existence of civilization growth of a number of negative factors: degradation of nature, degradation of human morality, increasing poverty, disease, hunger, crime , aggression, growing to a critical level of conflict between the technosphere and the biosphere

Leading scientists, thinkers and politicians in most countries of the world are making great efforts to find a way out of this crisis.

The nature in which you, young people, will have to live, is polluted, subject to destruction, is destroyed. Have many of you been lucky enough to see clear river water, clean sand, enjoy the silence without the roar of engines, breathe clean air without gasoline, fuel oil, pesticides? Your future can be horrible if you don’t start treating this leprosy right away. It’s time for you to act.

Modern youth will play a crucial role in the reorientation of the directions and nature of the future development of society and the harmonization of relations between man and nature.

Deterioration of most ecosystems of the biosphere, a significant reduction in bioproductivity and biodiversity, catastrophic depletion of soils and mineral resources with an unprecedented increase in pollution of all geospheres and the socio-economic crisis that threatens the existence of our civilization today led to several ” explosions “: demographic, industrial and energy, an explosion of violence against nature.

Scientist R. McCamary suggested that at the beginning of the XXI century. the world’s population will increase by 100 million annually, 90% of them at the expense of developing countries. In 1650 the world’s population was about 500 million, over the next 200 it doubled, and doubled again in the next 80 years; in 1975 the population of the Earth reached 4 billion people. Within a minute, the world’s population increases by 172 people. This means that every week 1.7 million people are added to the population of the Earth – as many as live today in such cities of Ukraine as Zaporozhye, Vinnytsia, Zhytomyr combined.

Estimates show that in the near future the population will continue to grow “by 3 people / sec., Ie” 90 million people. / res. and will reach 7-8 billion in 2000. And by 2100 the population will be “9-13 billion people., although for all these people natural resources and biosphere capabilities to support life will be completely insufficient. Even with 7- 8 billion will be mass extinctions from hunger and disease.

Developing countries account for 80% of population growth, in developed countries it will not exceed 1%.

The well-being of people is closely linked to population growth, economic development and the state of the environment.

Scientists estimate that the modern Earth’s biosphere is able to support the normal functioning and development of mankind, the number of which will not exceed 4-5 billion people, and even under conditions of optimal distribution of national incomes, mutual assistance, mutual support and mutual understanding providing all the people of the planet, rational, nature management and environmental protection.

Unregulated population growth leads to an increase in energy and industrial production and as a consequence – an increase in environmental pollution, the formation of acid rain, ozone holes, the greenhouse effect, disease, impoverishment of the majority of the population.

Today, 10 million children in the world are malnourished, and more than 200 million are malnourished. According to the UN, about 25 million people. today they do not have quality drinking water.